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Need To Know.
Apple Becomes First Trillion Dollar Company.
Apple's stock rose 2.9% yesterday to end at $207.39 per share, pushing the company's market capitalization past the $1T threshold. The gains make the tech giant the first publicly-traded company in history to reach the symbolic mark. The news also caps Apple's best two-day run in the market since April 2014, as it rallied 9% after its second-quarter earnings report beat expectations and it announced it had bought back $20B of its own shares (what is a stock buyback?). The company debuted on the stock market in December 1980 at a modern-day equivalent of $0.39. Apple's run to one trillion dollars has been fueled by the now-ubiquitous iPhone - in 2006 Apple posted a profit of $2B on $20B in sales, which by last year had grown to $48.4B on $229B in sales. Other tech giants are hot on Apple's heels, with Amazon at a market cap of $877B, followed by Google's parent company Alphabet ($851B) and Microsoft ($822B). 

Check out a cool visual history of Apple's rise to one trillion here

Pope Francis Disavows Death Penalty.
Pope Francis announced that the Roman Catholic Church now considers the death penalty unjust in all cases, a strong pivot from the Church's previous stance. Previously, the Church's Catechism - a summary of beliefs for the Catholic faithful - allowed for the death penalty when it was “the only practicable way” to defend others' lives. The previous wording allowed for breathing room for government officials who support capital punishment or whose positions included responsibilities related to state executions. While a number of majority-catholic countries have banned capital punishment, a majority of American Catholics favor the practice. In a statement, Francis called the previous stance outdated as there are "new ways" to protect the common good without resorting to the death penalty. 

Lollapalooza Kicks Off.
Lollapalooza, the long-running alt-rock music festival in downtown Chicago, kicked off yesterday and runs through the weekend. This year's iteration, expected to draw over 160,000 people, includes Jack White, St. Vincent, Tyler the Creator, The Weeknd and more (check out the lineup poster). The annual festival was inaugurated in 1991 as a sort-of "farewell tour" for the band Jane's Addiction, and ran until 1997 as a multi-city tour - after a brief revival in 2003, it converted to a permanent Chicago fixture in 2006. Officials have significantly increased security for this year's festival, following incidents like the 2017 Las Vegas shooting that targeted a much smaller concert event. 

You can catch shows on three separate live streams here

In The Know.

Sports, Entertainment & Culture.

Tiger Woods & Phil Mickelson announce one-on-one winner take all event set for Thanksgiving weekend; winner will reportedly take home $10M (More) 
> Los Angeles District Attorney is reviewing alleged rape case against Backstreet Boys' Nick Carter (More)
62-year-old short story written by Ernest Hemingway is being published for the first time (More)

Science & Technology.

Google testing out a censored search engine for use in China; company left country in 2010 over demands that it censor searches (More)
Study shows both people who abstain from drinking and those having over 14 drinks per week during midlife are at higher risk of dementia; underlying mechanisms likely different in both groups (More)
Cremations found at Stonehenge reveal that the builders came from west Wales, over 100 miles away (More)

Business & Markets.

Brought to you by 
> Smart speaker maker Sonos stock up 24% on first day as public company (More) | Partners with Nasdaq to redesign the sound of the Nasdaq bell (More)
> Specialty retailer Brookstone to file for bankruptcy, adding to list of brick & mortar retail failures (More)
> Connected bike fitness business Peloton raises $550M funding at $4.15B valuation (More)

Gain access to the private market. Invest in or sell pre-IPO shares on EquityZen, a platform for buying shares in private companies (More)

Politics & World Affairs.

Director of National Intelligence Dan Coats says Russians trying to hack, steal information from congressional candidates (More) | Trump rolls out plan to combat interference in 2018 midterms (More)
White House proposes freezing Obama-era fuel efficiency standards at year 2020 levels, or 30 mpg; 17 states have already filed suit to block move (More)
Saudi-led pro-government forces kill 20 in attack on Yemeni port city held by rebels, escalating country's civil war (More
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Weekend Reads.

Here's How America Uses Its Land. 

Bloomberg | Dave Merrill and Lauren Leatherby. There are 1.9 billion acres of land in the contiguous United States, and all of it is used for different purposes - ranging from work to play. From many different perspectives, explore maps that show exactly what each bit of the massive country is used for. (Read)

Letter to My Younger Self. 

The Players' Tribune | Ray Allen. In an intimate letter to his younger self, Ray Allen recounts his childhood struggles and offers himself advice that he wished he had heard when he was 13-years-old. (Read)

The Highest Court in the Land. 

Sports Illustrated | Stanley Kay. The Supreme Court has always been the highest court in the land, but that's only with the exception of the storage-room turned basketball court on the fifth floor above the tribunal. (Read)

When a Robot Begs for Its Life. 

The Verge | James Vincent. After participants in a recent study had spent some time with a small humanoid robot named Nao, they found it hard to complete the study and turn it off - especially when it asked them not to. (Read)
Don't Argue, It's Science: Here's the best way to make friends

France outlaws smartphones in schools for students up to age 15

...And also outlaws cat-calling women in public

The ice cream experts explain how to stop a brain freeze.

Germans are drinking so much this summer the country is running out of beer bottles

Identical twin brothers get married to identical twin sisters, will move in together

You can now buy a real-life Iron Man flying suit

An infographic showing where your car is most likely to be stolen across the US

Clickbait: Golden Retriever recreates Madonna's most iconic moments in perfect detail

Historybook: Christopher Columbus sets sail from Spain (1492); HBD Tony Bennett (1926); HBD Martha Stewart (1941); Rival basketball leagues merge to form NBA (1949); HBD Tom Brady (1977).
"When you realize that you have identified a passion, invest in yourself."
- Martha Stewart

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